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Features of structuring by a personality of psychological life-time
Author: Kaluzhnaya E.N., PhD in Psychology, Zaporizhzhya National University
Psychological studies show that growing up with a man trying to build a coherent and consistent identity with their past identities. Thus, V. Lyaudis(2001) interprets «the variability» content in the light of past experience of the self-made person. In turn, E. Hrinvald (1980) assumes that everyone has their «totalitarian Еgo» which reviews the past according to its current views. In fulfilling its social function, memory «edits» personal memoirs, based on the needs of the present, because of the need to have a certain individual story that would not interfere with a positive self-image.
The time factor is evident in autobiographical memory in several ways. Firstly, this localization of single events on the time coordinates. Secondly, the sequencing of events and their relative position. Thirdly, subjective «density» and «rarity» of certain stages of life, and finally installing the subjective boundaries of past, present and future, that the formation time transpective personality (V. Nurkova, K. Vasylevskaya, 2003).
Exploring the social function of memory due to the specific psychological time P. Zhane (1936) showed that during reminiscences never happen completely accurate reproduction events, literal reproduction of their chronological sequence and duration disrupts the normal flow of mental processes in the present and a form of psychopathology memory.
Experimentally found (L. Borozdyna, L. Spyrydonova. 1998) that at old age the fixation on the past dominante, because of reducing the structural component of the future. This phenomenon is explained not only by objective processes of aging, but also the transfer of emphasis from prospective self-identity to preserve achieved, which becomes, finally, the absolute importance and «functional autonomy». In particular, the concept becomes a reality, which used to seem strange for a young person, «rendering the meaning of the past», «focusing on the past», «past lives».
According to the conception of P. Fress (1981), psychological time being formed by relationships between life events.Subjective probability between events links gives a person confidence that one event leads to another. The events recorded in memory are manifested not an isolated array of different patterns of information, and provide a specific time coordinates biography provided by the individual phases and periods.
Sometimes an event is crucial for humans, sharing her life into «before» and «after». If the interpretation of events is positive, then the person sees his life as a series of successful solutions and achieving their goals despite obstacles and setbacks. If the interpretation is negative, then the perception of life in the colors of the pessimistic is not dependent on how people actually successful in their actions (T. Tytarenko, 2003).
The meaningfulness of event in the structure of psychological time is determined by the totality of its cause and targeted communications with other events, their qualitative and quantitative characteristics and the impact that this event in representation of a person performs on the main areas of self-manifestation and life in general (Ye. Golovaha, O. Kronyk, 1997).
Paying attention to the importance of analysis in the study of memories of basic units of personality and its traditional way of overcoming life's challenges, A. Adler (1969) argued that each memory, no matter how trivial it may seem, is a story that follows a person to using past experiences to prepare for the future by using already tested style of action. According to convictions of F. Dolto (2003), the advantage of past human experience is to be less vulnerable in future trials.
A. Leontyev (2009) points to the right of the individual «to shed the burden of the past» that does not mean «legitimization» strategy «disconnection times», when a person is forced to look only to the future. Modified free person appeals for help to the past, integrating past experience, looking for support in the memory and often appeals to the future in search of a goal, but one knows that both are the acts of today. It has no power over objective time; however, their psychological time structures them.
Cognitive psychology uses the term «circuit» – cognitive representations of past experience, which organizes and directs the information on an individual's personality affects the evaluation process events and arrangements in general. In the sense of personal problems as a consequence of «distortion circuits» appropriate to its «alignment» are understanding and criticism of «their own reality».Within the narrative approach, the term «discourse» – historically stacked structure principles, guidelines, categories and beliefs that injectable person in the internal text and sounded in her confession (Zh.Lakan, 1999). Synonymous with the term «discourse» and «scheme» is the concept of «theme» –emotionally burdened by the problem around which the recurrent conflict. Given this approach, the manifestations of psychological problems turns to be a manifestation of a top theme that defines the means of life events.
Thus, based on the theoretical analysis, we can formulate a conclusion about the importance of analysis of mechanisms of individual life plan in the light of individual psychological functioning as a whole.
1. Kaluzhnaya E.N.Psychological mechanisms of formation self-concept of the personality/ E.N. Kaluzhnaya // Стратегія розвитку професійної підготовки та естетичного виховання майбутніх акторів: Матеріали Всеукраїнської науково-практичної конференції 26-27 листопада 2015 р. – Запоріжжя, 2015. – С. 48-50.
2. Kaluzhnaya E.N. Psychological specificity ofself-concept as an integral characteristic of personality / E.N. Kaluzhnaya // Научные перспективы - 2016: Материалы ІІ Международной научно-практической конференции 26 февраля2016 г. – Горловка: ФЛП: Пантюх Ю.Ф., 2016.– Режим доступа: http://sconference.org/publ/nauchno_prakticheskie_konferencii/psikhologicheskie_nauki/socialnaja_psikhologija_psikhologija_socialnoj_raboty/16-1-0-2529
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