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Psychological mechanisms of temporal self-determination of the personality
Author: Kaluzhnaya E.N., PhD in Psychology, Zaporizhzhya National University
Researchers agree that the structuring of psychological characteristics of living space and time by a human – is worthy of thorough studying. Thus, continued studies of the life-space person organize typology of time, investigated the specificity of personal self-determination according to certain temporal characteristics (K.A.Abulhanova-Slavska, M.Y.Boryshevskiy, V.P.Zinchenko, I.A.Zyazyun, V.I.Kovalyov, S.D.Maksymenko, V.A.Molyako, V.V.Rybalka, V.A.Semychenko, L.V.Sohan, V.A.Tatenko, T.M.Tytarenko, A.Y.Chebykin, N.V.Chepeleva, Y.M.Shvalb).
L.S.Vygotsky expressed the idea that it is the individual life plan of everyone which turns life story from a number of disparate and unconnected episodes to the holistic biographical process. This methodological idea of «final orientation behavior» has found its differential theoretical and empirical development in the works of many local psychologists. To indicate the phenomenon of subjective reflection of objective human temporal relations, on the basis of which is formed integral relation of the individual to the passage of their lives, the notion of «personal time» is used.
To indicate the phenomenon of subjective reflection of objective human temporal relations, on the basis of which is formed integral relation of the individual to the passage of their lives, the notion of «personal time» is used. Individual time contains not only direct time, but also reverses time perspective. In order to see the personal changes, it’s necessary to analyze the means by which a person determines his past, present and future (K.A.Abulhanova-Slavska, 1991).
While growing a person creates a «time horizon» – the integrative characteristics of temporal perceptions and preferences of the individual, consisting of social activities. Thus, as P.Fress remarked (1981), only realizing their time horizons, analyzing the effects of completed actions, planning the following actions, a person can move forward through life, grow, and not stand still or degrade.
According to the «field theory» of K.Levin (1935), every person creates his own world through «structured one’s living space» according to personal experiences. The value and significance of the various components of the environment and the subjective life time is determined by individual time perspectives.
The main feature is the ability to conduct an integrated personality types later in the psychological context of nowadays, which means its ability to use the «time factor», contrast and evaluate the long-term and immediate effects of certain life events. The meaning of life generated image of the expected future possibilities and identifies specific focus personal fulfillment (A.-H.Maurer, 1946).
Psychological structure of the expectations formed components such as emotional background, prognostic assessment and treatment of personality built to forecast. By modality waiting are divided into positive and negative. Estimate reflects the idea of the individual probability of realization of each of the simulated scenarios, most of which are probabilistic and recorded as expectations (L.V.Sohan, 1996).
For Y.M.Shvalb (2003), it is the ability to ensure the integrity of goal-setting and internal unity of the individual's activity, all forms of meaningful behavior. In concentrated form is updated as objective enough defined (chronologically and content) subjective model of the desired result, connected with means for its implementation.
Evaluation and comparison of predicted implemented is a constant background of life that is emotionally meaningful form reflects the extent of implementation of their individual needs, values and objectives (V.P.Zinchenko, 2001). This indicates a comparison with the previous plan made sense and meaning, that is, at each stage of deployment steps presents its future results, subject to modification by the extent of implementation. Personal adjustment is likely to adapt to the future than the present, because all human life is the focus on goals that are more or less of distant future (V.G.Aseev, 1981).
Specifying this phenomenon V.I.Kovalyov (1995) introduced the concept of individual time transpective – a psychological mechanism by which a person makes a subjective time management. This term, in tune with the concept of «time synthesis» stands for a transparent vision of the past, present and future, that is, the ability of the individual to the contemplation of the passage of time of their lives in any way. Analysis of the whole human life course as a sequence of events, elections and decisions, provides a complete holistic view on orientation of the individual with his personal values and ways of interacting with the entire world (T.M.Tytarenko, 2003).
Based on the theoretical analysis, we can formulate a conclusion that the logic of personal ontogeny is «expanding» time space, goes beyond «here and now», awareness of personal and beyond personal past, focus on the probable future. Consistent perception of facts and events, attempt to predict their further development and take appropriate decisions and allow a person to directly experience the time. The dialectic relationship of past, present and future in the mind consists of a picture of the life course, defining temporal orientation of individual time – retrospective, prospective, each of which, going beyond self-reflection will be marked values and motivation.
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