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Академия наук

Пятница, 02.12.2016
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Сравнительно-историческое и типологическое языкознание

Gender exploration in terms of ethnic and cultural contexts

Автор: Абдувахабова Махина Азатовна, старший преподаватель и соискатель Узбекского Государственного университета мировых языков

 

Since XX century the gist of culture constantly was overfilled with the inner cultural components including lexical elements, particular customs, ideology, beliefs, faith and regulations. Culture is the human activity outcome aiming at satisfying material and moral needs of people [1, 22], and including combination of subjects and objects. Its subjects are values, regulations, views and world-view mechanisms, but activity, world-view modes, language and artifact serve as its objects [1].

Culture is the model of verbal behavior and activity interpretation [3]. Uzbek culture is a rare and distinctive synthesis of Turkic, Arabic, and other eastern cultures [4]. Culture of the Uzbek nationality differs totally with its populace’s hospitality, courtesy, friendliness, esteem toward adults, and kindness to other cultures. Peculiar key constants of English culture involve steadiness, and reticence, as well. Cultural constants and conceptual collection create the world verbal picture, and collection of conceptual prototypes establishes the world national picture [5, 9]. This estimation causes occurrence of the world ethnic and cultural picture. Ethnic and cultural picture of gender is explored by various cultural components, including linguoculturologic means as linguoculturemes, ethnonymes and idionymes, linguoculturonymes, discrete means, logoepystemes and epystemes, discursive phenomena; culturonymes as functional means, sociocultural lacunes, patterns, codes, symbols, ceremonies and kinemas in folklore texts. We think that new linguogenderologic means are expressed in the following form:

a) Exotisms (words which serve to depict other nations’ social life): She immediately recognized the gentleman Hubert; Papà preparazione del vino per ogni anno, uve Vernaccia della migliore che senza una goccia d'acqua (Father used to prepare Vernacci wines every year from the best wine grapes which is drunk till the last drop); Чопонга бурканиб мулла Таппак чиқиб келарди (mullah Tappak was going out while putting on chapan);

b) Ethnostereotypes: Although English women are politically free, they are subjected to strict social discipline and ingrained habits; Аёллар дунёда доим кучли бўлганлар, шунинг учун ҳам Италияда аёллар ўзининг консервативлиги билан фарқ қилганлар (Women have always been strong in the world, thus in Italy they differ according to their conservatism); Ўзбек аёлининг фазилатини итоаткорликда кўриш қайта тикланмоқда (Merit of Uzbek women on obedience is founded again).

c) Sociocultural lacunes (functional means without equivalent): Lord Chamberlain of the royal court and the king’s private pages went...; A Venezia, il Doge è stato eletto patrizi dal loro ambiente attraverso elezioni indirette per la vita (Doge[1] in Venice is elected on the basis of elections by patricians); ...на беклик ва на амирлик кўзига кўринмай қиш чилласида махсидўзлик қилиб битта ғиштни чорасига ўраб, сандалга ўтирибди... (Without seeing anything both the status of bey and emir he dealt with shoe-making in chilla while putting the brick into the cup and sitting in front of sandal);

d) Linguistic lacunes (some proper nouns in casuistry which do not have any equivalent in translation. These proper nouns express not only concrete beings (process, location), but they are used as cultural symbols, too): He knew all about the culture, about Peter Pan, about Merlin; Avete ascoltato la storia del piccolo Pinocchio, e circa gladiatori romani (did you hear a story about little Pinocchio and the Rome gladiators); Бир кун Насриддиннинг тушига Ҳизр бува кирибди-ю... (Once Nasiriddin saw a Hizr…).

e) Social symbolisms. Symbolisms are signs interpreted as a natural embodiment, especially imagery signs. Concrete and visible occasions are displayed under these signs (or hieroglyphs) or gave signals on nomination of secret objects which is the symbol of supernatural truth: Yellow star in English tales is the symbol of selectee infant’s birth. Italiani antichi credevano che topazio addomestica rabbia e calma le passioni , offre agli uomini la saggezza , e le donne - di fertilità (ancient Italians believed that topaz would adorn the anger and quiet the passion, they thought that topaz would donate wisdom to men, and fertility to women); Эркаклар ўзлари билан пичоқ олиб юришлари ўзбек маданиятида эркаклик ори ва лафзи, унинг бир сўзлигига ишорадир (The symbol of carrying a knife by men in Uzbek culture indicates to the male honor, their refractory and solid).

f) Linguistic archetypes (linguistic archetypes are devoid of ethnocultural metaphoric peculiarity. They are translated into other world languages without damage to content and overall textual meaning): Light blue - in English mythology is the color of femininity, motherhood and the strength of family ties [6, 29-30]; Roma Antica, le spose indossavano un velo giallo. Questa tradizione, a sua volta, è associato con l'amore e la felicità, incarnato in giallo (Brides in ancient Rome wore on yellow veil. This custom is connected to love and happiness personified in yellow color; Одатда унаштирув кунида аёлларга 7 дона гул совға қиладилар (Usually in betrothal day 7 flowers are given to women).

g) The state of cultural shock: three little pigs who grew up and left their mother are to find homes for themselves; Don Sirocco, non mi vuoi sposare? (Don Sirocco, don’t you want to marry me?); Подшонинг аччиғи келиб: -Мен сендай қашшоқ билан қуда бўламанми, ўғлинг тағин... (The king said while being annoyed: -I have to become related with you to such a beggarly man, in addition to it your son may be…)

h) Cultural distinction: They wanted to know each other better and then decided to play a wedding a month later; Қизга никоҳ сабабли берилган маҳр турли сарпо, бўхчалар билан келтирилди (Mahr which is given for bride by the groom has been brought with various sarpo and buhchas).

i) Cultural archetypes: Castle Lydes (Henry VIII the Emperor built it in honor of Catherine Aragon), the Gradara castle in Italy (it is the symbol of love between Paolo and Francesco), the Bibikhanum mausoleum (Amir Temur built it in honor of his wife Saroymulkhanum).

Exaggeration, support of any valuables might transform this culture into shrine, or idol. Devoted person to universal values might turn into cosmopolitan or person without Homeland, person who takes a great interest in national values might become a nationalist, person who appreciates class values might become a revolutionary or terrorist, person who is interested in group values very much will become a marginal (a banished, loner) person. Summing up, a person who is truly devoted to his culture should not surpass the limit.

 

Литература:

1. Махкамова Г. “Концепция формирования межкультурной компетенции студентов факультетов английского языка” , Ташкент: «Фан», 2010. –с.207.

2. Куликова Л.В. Коммуникативный стиль в межкультурной общении, М.: Флинта-Наука, 2009. –c.288.

3. Goodenough  W.H. Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics//Language in Culture and Society, New York, 1964. –p.93.

4. Умаров Э., Абдуллаев М., Хакимов Э. “Культурология”, Тошкент: Янги авлод, 2006. –c.159.

5. Корнилов О.А. Языковые картины мира как производные национальных менталитетов, М.: ЧеРо, 2003.

6. Николаев, С.М. Камни - мифы, легенды, суеверия..., Новосибирск: “Наука”, 1995.

 

[1] ДОЖ (итал. doge, от латинского dux — вождь), глава Венецианской (кон. 7-18 вв.) и Генуэзской (14- 18 вв.) республик. 

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