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Economic prospects of introduction energy saving technologies in Ukraine
Author: Yakymchuk Dmytro Mykhailovych, PhD, Kherson State University
Rising energy prices worldwide require to use them frugally. The feasibility of this approach shows particular European countries. Constructed buildings designed in such way to make their services cheaper in terms of reducing energy consumption without loss of comfort for life .
The construction of buildings with low energy consumption is gaining momentum in Europe. From 2012 to massively reduce passive houses and in the years 2015-2020 in the EU put task to build houses with zero energy consumption .
The high prices of traditional energy sources make them more economical in use, and in the future completely refuse from them. The building that was built on this principle will be nonvolatile object. To achieve these objectives should maximize the use of energy alternative energy sources.
Especially because base scenario, which was granted by the International Energy Agency (IEA), global energy demand by 2030 will grow about twice . Therefore, need to use all our experience in energy-saving technologies in the world today and continue to develop new energy efficient technologies.
House with low energy consumption called “passive house”. Practical use showed that the cost of building a passive house 30% more than conventional building. But the exploitation of a passive house is much cheaper than usual.
Passive or energy efficient house – this is a building, which consumes very little energy during the year for their needs, and ideally able to independently provide itself with energy.
According European standards, a passive house considered the building that consumes in year no more than 15 kW/m2 energy .
However passive house construction is more complicated than usual, given the fact that the stage of design requires more attention to all details. For example, to reduce thermal losses not just take as thicker heat insulation and cover them outer surface of the building.
It is also necessary to eliminate the so-called “excess heat”. Excess heat designates the places where as result of breach continuous insulation shell happens high heat recoil. That is where joined together other building materials with a different thermal conductivity, and where not isolated details are in isolated areas, etc.
Excess heat may lead to the formation of condensation, humidity and fungal growth, and the worst – heat loss in buildings.
In the design of new buildings should consider the following factors:
- orientation of the building;
- presence of windows on each side of the building and their sizes;
- illumination of apartments;
- conditioning system;
- ventilation system;
- heating system;
- possibility of the use solar and geothermal energy;
- use modern insulating materials;
- taking into account the structural features of joining different building materials;
- use modern windows;
- use modern building materials;
- complete concordance of all technical facilities of the buildings.
The important criterion of the quality civil engineering is experience of specialists, which participate at the stowage of thermal balance of building. Correct conducted calculation greatly facilitates subsequent stage of the construction of buildings.
In Europe has built thousands of buildings with low energy consumption and this number continues to grow. The biggest built passive house is located in Innsbruck. It is characterized by the following parameters:
- annual energy consumption – less than 15 kW/m2;
- area of premises – 13984,37 m2;
- number of apartments – 354;
- area of installed solar panels – 1050 m2;
- insulation with a thickness of 26 cm.
To maintain a fresh and warm air in the room used recuperator – heat exchanger that exchanges heat between the input and output air flows. In cold season the air that comes from premises conveys the warm to air, coming into the room. In the warmer months is opposite – warm incoming air is cooled. In this way in the room is always fresh air and the heat loss is minimized.
In order to provide passive house energy used any heat sources – a temperature that is distinguished by a man; heat of cooking; energy of renewable energy sources – solar, ground heat, wind and others.
Consequently, the use of modern building energy efficient technologies allows significant reduction energy consumption of buildings, that provides a substantial economic growth of many industrie brunches. The construction of new and reconstruction of existing buildings with bringing their energy consumption level to European standards that will provide the energy independence of the state and improving the environmental situation, by decreasing the harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
The aim of further investigations is deep analysis of efficiency introduction modern energy saving technologies of European level in Ukraine and possibilities of adaptation to our environment.
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