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Этнополитология и этногосударствоведение
"Ethno cultural specific of SUAR: the Etigar mosque”
Author: Samedinov Timur Selyametovich, student of the 4th course, Tashkent State Institute of Oriental studies
It is generally considered that, nowadays nation’s ethnic-cultural conditions are a base of society’s evolution development. Many nations have their own culture and any of architectural building or another kind of art.
SUAR has its specific culture too and it differs from the culture of China. There are many buildings which are related to Islamic religion and one of the is Etigar Mosque.
The Etigar Mosque, located in the center of Kashgar City in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is one of the important historical heritages of the Uygur people. It is well known at homeland and abroad because of its long history, grand construction and beautiful color. Like the famous mosques in Bukhara and Samarkand, the Etigar Mosque attracts attention from numerous Muslims. The word "Etigar” refers to the mosques in which the Muslims in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region gather to conduct religious services. Some people argue that "Erigar” means a "Festival Plaza”, because the inflexion of "eti” in Arabic means "festival” and "gar” in Persian means "Plaza”. However, this is not completely right. The mosque is not only a main place for celebrating Islamic festivals, but also a place for Muslims to conduct regular religious activities. The Etigar Mosque is a key historical relic protection unit in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The government has appropriated special funds for maintaining the Mosque many times over the years.       The Mosque was fully renovated in 1981. Thus a grand, solemn and new Etigar Mosque appeared. The Etigar Mosque, covering in area of 16,800 square meters, is the largest mosque in Xinjiang. It consists of the Hall for worshiping, the Doctrine-Teaching Hall, the Gate Tower (square edifice of the gate) and other auxiliary structures. The gate is 4.7 meters high and the Gate Tower is 12 meters high. Each of the two sides of the Gate Tower is an 18-meter- high exquisite column structure. On top of each column stands a minaret with a meniscus (a minaret is, in Islamic religious architecture, the tower from which the faithful are called to prayer five times each day by a muezzin.). Behind the Gate Tower is an entry arch with a small minaret on the top. There is also a brass meniscus on the top of the minaret. The Gate Tower, gate, minaret and entry arch from a typical Islamic grand and solemn mosque. Behind the portal is an octagonal hallway with two paved paths on the both sides. Leading to the courtyard. The courtyard covers an area of one hectare, with two large parallel pools in the north. There are 36 Doctrine-Teaching Halls for imams to preach on both the south and north sides of the courtyard. There is a pond with rippling green jade water enclosed by flourishing poplar trees reaching toward the sky, as well as vigorous pines. It endows the mosque with a quiet elegance. The Hall for worshiping, rising 1.5 meters above the ground, is on a 2,660-square meter platform. The layout of the Hall is a rectangle. The white ribbed ceiling of this hall is supported by 140 sculptured wooden columns. Each column is seven meters high and painted green. The ceiling is a wooden coffered-ceiling with colorful painting pattems. The Hall for worshiping comprises an inner hall(main hall) and an outer hall. The enclosed main hall is a rectangle in shape. In the back wall in the main hall, there is a mihrab, a niche in the mosque indicating the direction of prayer(i.e. towards Mecca). Beside the mihrab sits a sculptured wooden minbar. A crosier is beside the minbar. During service and festivals, the grand Mullah stands on the minbar to preach the Koran. Carpets, soft nap blankets, cloth sheets or reed mats are laid on the ground outside and inside the hall for praying. During the regular service, the Mosque can house 2,000-3,000 worshipers, and on the Jumah it can accommodate 6,000-7,000 worshipers. On important Islamic festivals it can hold as many as 30,000. On such a day, the Mosque will be full of kneeling worshipers. Sometimes, the square in front of the Mosque is also full of worshipers. The Etigar Mosque, located in the heart of Kashgar City, boasts a history of over 500 years. According to literature, the original Etigar Mosque was built in 1442 as a very small structure. It was built by the descendants of Shakesimirzha, the ruler of Kashgar. This place was originally a cemetery for Shakesimirzha and his family, as well as other renowned personalities like Mizar Achizwali Sodan, the brother of Sache Prince Sayd Khan, descendant of Chagatai Khan. The small mosque was enlarged to hold Jumah Prayer in 1537 by Woboli Hadar Mizar Arbok to monumentalize his uncle Mizar Achizwali Sodan. In the late 18th century, a rich woman named Golirara became sick and died in Kashgar when she was on the way to Pakistan. She made a will before her death. She decided to donate her fortune to build a mosque and thus the Etigar Mosque which was nat very big then was renovated and enlarged again. Around the mosque was still a cemetery.         
Several later renovations and enlargements followed. In 1872, the Etigar Mosque was renovated fully again to the current scale and style. After renovation, the Mosque was divided into two parts. The east part is the mosque, and in the west are he Doctrine-Teaching Halls, with 96 rooms housing 400 Muslim students for dwelling and studying. A steam bath accommodating 100 people, ad a head room large enough to hold 400 people, as well as four man-made ponds were also added.
After several renovations and enlargements, the Etigar Mosque added more rooms and facilities. By planting more trees and grasses, the Mosque came to enjoy a tranquil environment and fresh air.[1]
So, we analyzed the culture of SUAR with its unique characteristics and features. Based on all aforementioned points, we can conclude followings:
1)   The culture of SUAR is different from other cultures with its features and it has a historical root.
2)   The mosque of Etigar is proved that this is close to Islam religion.
3)   SUAR is a part of China and this encountered to international cultural tendentious.
1.International culture Association of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Places of Historic Interest and Scenic Beauty in Xinjiang, China (Bilingual) Publication Date: 201208
2.Синьцзянское народное издательство Синьцзян, китайская земля: Прошлое и настоящее ред. Шэн, Ли 2006 г.
3.China: A New History, Second Enlarged Edition by John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman (Apr 30, 2006)
Категория: Политические науки | Добавил: Administrator (23.07.2013)
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