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To the problem of simultaneous translation
Author: Kuimova Marina Valeryevna, PhD in Pedagogical Science, National research Tomsk polytechnic university
Oral translation plays a very important part in the world. Russian and foreign businessmen, scientists and politicians work side by side at different countries and therefore they need translation during commercial talks, signing of contracts and everyday communication.
As it is widely known, there are two types of translation: written and oral. As the names suggest, in written translation the source text is in written form, as is the target text. In oral translation or interpretation the interpreter listens to the oral presentation of the original and translates it as an oral message. Oral translation falls into consecutive and simultaneous. In consecutive translation the translating starts after the original speech or some part of it has been completed. In simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is supposed to be able to give his translation while the speaker is uttering the original message.
In simultaneous interpretation the translator is expected to keep pace with the fastest speakers, to understand all kinds of foreign accents and defective pronunciation, to guess what the speaker meant to say but failed to express due to his inadequate proficiency in the language he speaks.
In consecutive interpretation he is expected to listen to long speeches, taking the necessary notes, and then to produce his translation in a full or compressed form, giving all the details or only the main ideas.
Sometimes the interpreter is set a time limit to give his rendering, which means that he will have to reduce his translation considerably, selecting and reproducing the most important parts of the original and dispensing with the rest. This implies the ability to make a judgment on the relative value of various messages and to generalize or compress the received information. The interpreter must obviously be a good and quick-witted thinker.
During the translation the simultaneous interpreter chooses equivalents on basis of:
-   common linguistic knowledge;
-   microcontext;
-   common background information;
-   special information.
There are main devices that are used in the work of a simultaneous interpreter. They are speech compression, omission and addition of the material. During the oral translation from Russian into English the compression is required when there are repetitions, words of little importance or when the speaker is too fast. In order not to be behind the speaker and not to miss important segments of his speech the interpreter has to choose between lexical and syntactical equivalents which must be compressed. The ability to abridge and to condense oral speech is one of the most important abilities in the art of simultaneous translation. But, in order not to misrepresent the speaker’s idea using short words or omitting unnecessary words he is forced to decide each time what is superfluous and should be omitted.
Though during the translation from Russian into English the text is usually becomes shorter sometimes there are the opposite cases. It happens when the rules of English grammar and the structure of the language require addition of the article or when the complex type of tense is used.
It should be said that the interpreter shouldn’t be limited by linguistics only in order to find better equivalents. He must study different spheres of human life in the country of the source language: its history, literature, psychology, etc. Only in this way there appears a possibility for the truth expert to fulfill the most difficult task – to interpret not just from one language into another language but from one culture into another.
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