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Пятница, 09.12.2016
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Германские языки

Ways of Translating Various Proper Names

Автор: Британ Андрій Ярославович, студент, Національний педагогічний університет імені М.П. Драгоманова

 

There are no finally established rules yet as to how different kinds and types of English proper names should be translated into Ukrainian, though Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic/orthographic structure, i.e., are transliterated in English. E.g.: Антоніна Antonina; Віра Vira; Лаврін Lavrin; Роман Roman; Авраменко Avramenko etc.

Translation of the names of streets, avenues and squares is predetermined by several factors. Alongside the established tradition, the most important of these factors is the meaning of the component parts making up the name.

The name of streets with an appositional “street/ avenue” nouns. When used in the text, the names of streets, avenues, roads, and squares may often be simply transcribed or transliterated, since the nouns “street”, “avenue”, “road” or “square” are familiar to many Ukrainians:

Dean Street – Дін-Стріт;

Milton Street/ Oxford Street – Мільтон Стріт/ Оксфорд Стріт;

Farrington Road – Фаррінґтон-Роуд.

When used out of context, the names of streets, avenues and squares require in Ukrainian an additional explanatory noun вулиця (бульвар, провулок):

Narrow Lane – вул. (пров.) Нерроу-лейн;

Midland Park Road – вул. Мідланд-парк роуд.

In recent years, however, especially in the local English press more and more often our вулиця, бульвар etc. are transliterated in English:

Vulyts’a/ vulytsia Kostel’na/ Bohdana Khmelnyts’koho;

Ploshcha Peremohy/ Tolstoho.

Translation of the names of British/ American publishing houses is performed according to the following rule: they are transliterated or transcribed and explicated at the same time:

Associated Book Publishers – лондонська книжково-видавнича фірма “Ассошіетід бук паблішерз”;

Cambridge University Press – англійське видавництво наукової та довідкової літератури при Кембріджському університеті “Кембрідж юніверсіті прес”;

Names of Ukrainian publishing houses are rendered into English similarly: with the corresponding identifying noun Publishers or Publishing House added to it:

Видавництво “Український письменник”/ “Дніпро” – Kyiv Ukrains’kyi Pysmennyk/ Dnipro Publishers (Publishing House);

Geographical names. It must be emphasized that in recent decades there has been a general tendency in translation practice to transcribe or transliterate foreign proper names and not to translate them. In conformity with the tendency some proper names of people and place names which had hitherto been translated are now transcribed or transliterated.

So Michael Faraday is no more Михайло Фарадей but Майкл Фарадей;

This tendency should also be observed when dealing with some other proper names, including geographical ones (the general tendency up to recently being transcription or transliteration). Thus a considerable number of English geographical names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only:

So Salt Lake City is no more місто Солоного Озера but місто Солт Лейк-Сіті.

Buckinghamshire – Бакінгемшир;

Freetown – Фрітаун;

Traditionally most names of companies (corporations, firms etc.) are transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated at the same time.

This method is also employed when rendering the names of publishing houses, titles of most newspapers and magazines or journals, and of some public bodies:

Associated Biscuit Manufacturers – англійська компанія по випуску хрустких коржиків “Ессошіейтід біскіт менюфекчерерз”;

It is much easier to translate the names of companies/ corporations when their product is indicated:

British-American Tobacco Co. – об’єднана англо-американська компанія тютюнових виробів “Брітіш-амерікан тобеко компані”;

Hotels, guest houses, hostels. Names of hotels are mostly reproduced through transcription or transliteration and explication at the same time:

The Royal Court Hotel – готель “Роял корт”:

Готель “Київ”/ “Русь”/ “Україна” – the Kyiv/ Rus’/ Ukraina Hotel;

When the names originate from common nouns or word-combinations they may be translated:

Готель “Колос”/ “Берізка”/ “Затишок” – the Kolos/ Birch Tree/ Cosy Nook Hotel;

Publishing houses and news agencies. Translation of the names of British/ American publishing houses is performed according to the following rule: they are transliterated or transcribed and explicated at the same time:

Associated Book Publishers – лондонська книжково-видавнича фірма “Ассошіетід бук паблішерз”;

The names of news agencies are also transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated in the TL:

Інформаційне агентство Дінау Укрінформ – Ukrainian Dinau Ukrinform News Agency;

 

Literature:

1. Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1992

2. Laycock, Henry. Words without Objects. Oxford, 2006

3. Vinokurova, Nadezhda. Lexical categories and argument structure, 2005

4. Sweet. H.A New English Grammar. Oxford, 2008

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